从竖琴墓到以弗所奇观:1840年奥斯曼帝国的英国考古学家–1880, by Debbie 查利斯. Pp. xii + 211, figs. 53. Duckworth, London 2008. $33. ISBN 978-0-7156-3757-9 (paper).

英国在爱琴海的领事馆和大英博物馆的古物收藏, by Lucia Patrizio unning. Pp. x + 224, figs. 12, maps 3. Ashgate Publishing, Surrey 2009. £60. ISBN 978-0-7546-6023-1(布)。


对于那些从事(古典)考古史研究的人们来说,形成全国古物收藏是一个相当感兴趣的话题。此处评论的两本书都描绘了大英博物馆在19世纪为其国家收藏而获取希腊文物的机制。在 从哈比墓到以弗所奇观, 查利斯 examines excavators engaged in acquisition within the Ottoman empire and their relationships to the British Museum from 1840 to 1880年. In 英国在爱琴海的领事馆和大英博物馆的古物收藏, unning addresses the role of consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents in the Levant from 1815 to 1860. 查利斯 explores in more detail the rationale for collection, employing the familiar concept that Europeans claimed symbols of the classical past as their own, necessitating collection for national museums and justifying their removal as rescuing them from the “decadent oriental” ignorant of their value. For unning, this rationale is implicit, though she notes that the consuls endorsed ideologies that justified their acquisition of antiquities. Both authors take contemporary events into account, refer to competition between the British and French, and highlight the role of Charles Thomas Newton. Each makes copious use of archival sources, detailed in their respective bibliographies.

查利斯将1840年至1880年确定为休闲古物收集与古典考古专业化之间的过渡时期。该书的核心是她的旅行者考古学家,这是一个混合名词,用于描述旅行者收藏家与专业考古学家之间的中间状态。同时,她看到大英博物馆内的部队按照“Great Chain of Art,”一种希腊中心理论,将进化链中的所有艺术与古典希腊艺术联系在一起。查利斯确定了这一时期的先例:旅行者考古学家的角色,他对该地区的深入了解,皇家海军的直接使用,借助新的摄影技术聘请艺术家和建筑师,新的插图出版社’对考古学的兴趣以及公众对旅行期刊的热情。她熟练地将学术趋势和流行观点编织在一起,以提供易于阅读的信息。

查利斯’这本书按时间顺序分为三个部分。 1840年代首次与Lycia交易(第1章)–2)以及1850年代的Halicarnassus和Cnidus(第3章)。利西亚墓葬的查尔斯·费洛斯(Charles Fellows)体现了旅行者考古学家的特征:他认识到“在旅游指南中崭露头角”(24)并相应地设置了他发表的报告的样式,雇用了一名艺术家和建筑师,声称对这一地区具有真实的了解,并使用针孔照相机来帮助制作准确的图纸。在他的第三次考察中,研究员在大英博物馆的支持下获得了官方 菲兰 (permission) to excavate. The Royal Navy provided manpower and ships to transport the monuments to England. 查利斯 points out, however, that the reception of the Harpy and Payava tombs in London led to a conflict with the proponents of the 大艺术链, who saw in them barbarian or oriental influences.

查利斯声称,牛顿在Halicarnassus和Cnidus的发掘工作“在为博物馆获取文物时加强了国家外交的运用 ”(55)。从1840年直到1853年他被任命为米蒂利尼副领事,牛顿一直受雇于大英博物馆。他从米蒂利尼(Mytilene)与博物馆的同事保持定期通信,并有望在小亚细亚和爱琴海诸岛的海岸上找到有希望的考古遗址。他的发掘获得了包括海军舰船和人员在内的政府支持,其中包括建筑师,工程师和摄影师。牛顿通过摄影,制图发现并仔细阅读历史记载进行了科学的发掘,以产生学术出版物而不是受欢迎的旅行社。 查利斯告诉我们,尽管克里米亚战争的胜利改善了与奥斯曼帝国的外交关系,但此时发生了许多变化,以便利牛顿’活动:大英博物馆的新人员有兴趣促进考古发现,外交大臣的直接支持以及技术的进步(坚固的蒸汽船,工程技术和摄影)。

第2部分在1850年代末和1860年代初移至北非以及在迦太基和赛勒涅的发掘工作(第4章)–5)。第4章和第5章分别遵循相同的模式:有关旅行者考古学家的简要传记信息,以及有关遗址的古代历史,其发掘以及在伦敦接受的材料的详细说明。 1850年代后期,内森·戴维斯(Nathan Davies)开挖了迦太基,然后是尤蒂卡(Utica),他是美国人在英国驻突尼斯领事馆的工作。在他对狄多的搜寻中’查利斯将这座城市戴维斯描绘成与海因里希·施利曼相似的地方,因为他们俩都是受文学影响。戴维斯’出版物的样式—like Fellows’—作为一个受欢迎的旅行社。查利斯提到戴维斯’使用荷兰领事较早前制作的迦太基详细地图。实际上,一名荷兰工程师让·埃米尔·洪伯特(Jean Emile Humbert)在雇用突尼斯的工作时制作了地图。洪伯特(Humbert)于1820年代应莱顿国家博物馆的要求发掘了布尼克城,该博物馆与后来的大英博物馆一样,也正在为其自己的国家收藏物获取文物。与牛顿(Newton)合作的工程师R. Murdock Smith和与戴维斯(Davies)合作的爱德华·波彻(Edward Porcher)也领导了一次探险(1860–1861年)到达鲜为人知的Cyrene领土。他们得到牛顿的支持,牛顿后来成为大英博物馆的希腊和罗马古物守护者。像牛顿’在他们的出版物中,他们的目标读者是知识分子。

回到黎凡特,第3部分重点介绍了在埃弗索索斯岛的主要发掘和Priene,Rhodes和Sardis的次要发掘,以及1860年代末和1870年代后期在塞浦路斯的发掘(第6章)–8)。牛顿的影响又一次被感受到:他与政府的关系意味着他能够为“cultural ventures”(115)。此时,他还前往该地区,参观了Ephesos(由John Turtle Wood指挥),Troy(施利曼),Priene(Dilettanti社团),Rhodes(Alfred Bilotti)等发掘的发掘。但是,随着1868年奥斯曼帝国博物馆的建立,我们开始看到奥斯曼帝国态度的变化。施利曼(Schliemann)从该国秘密地清除了古物,从而在1874年引入了第一部奥斯曼古物法。古典考古学在1880年代开始专业化:建立了有学识的社会,建立了外国学校,并创建了大学职位。

unning’s简介列出了三个“challenges” for investigation: the difference in attitudes about the Levant between travelers and foreign residents, the historical development of the British foreign service in the Levant from its origins in the Levant Company to its incorporation in the Foreign Office, and, finally, the collection of antiquities for the British Museum by government officials. Of the four substantial chapters in this book, the first deals with the transition of the consular position from the Levant Company to the Foreign Office. The need for change, unning tells us, was brought about by the establishment of the Ionian Protectorate and the allocation of British protective status to Ionian citizens trading or living in the Levant, creating additional consular work. Change was also necessitated by opinion at home—在新闻界和议会中—关于在国外代表英国利益的,在国外出生的黎凡特商人的不合时宜,尤其是鉴于希腊独立战争期间爱琴海的政治局势动荡不安(1821年)–1832) and its immediate aftermath. unning tracks the transformation in the duties of the consuls from a trade-oriented to a political role and the consequent worsening of their financial conditions. The second chapter looks at the changed political and commercial roles of the consuls in the Aegean islands and the coast of Asia Minor after 1825, when the service was handed over to the Foreign Office, documenting the gradual trend toward detached observation and diplomacy. These two chapters provide detailed historical context with numerous quotations from Levant Company and Foreign Office correspondence, representing a great deal of original research and successfully meeting the author’s second “challenge.”

The consular office at Rhodes, established in 1850, is the subject of chapter 3. Its establishment was due in part to the appointment 上 Rhodes of an Ottoman governor-general responsible for the Aegean islands, which highlighted the weakening of the Ottoman central government. Here, unning introduces Newton in his capacity as vice-consul at Mytilene. She quotes his two appointment letters: the first is a standard Foreign Office appointment; the second provides additional funds to extend his “与大英博物馆有关的有用性”(113),允许他旅行并报告考古景点。牛顿报价’的论文以及他的秘书多米尼克·埃利斯·科纳吉(Dominic Ellis Colnaghi)的论文提供了牛顿的见解’s attitude toward the local population. Here, unning addresses her first “challenge”: the difference in attitudes to the present state of Greece between traveler (using Lord Byron as an example) and foreign resident (Newton). Drawing 上 her research 上 Byron as a philhellene, unning reiterates the well-known fact that Byron believed Greece was in transition toward a time when it would regain its ancient splendor. Newton, many years later, after Greece had become an independent state, believed the Greeks incapable of attaining that splendor. Whether this “challenge”可以认为在两个人成功遇见的基础上,在不同的历史情况下来到爱琴海的不同地区是值得商bat的。在她对牛顿的解释中’s negative views of modern Greeks, unning cites the stereotypes the British applied to the Greeks documented by Gallant (体验统治:英属地中海的文化,身份和权力 [Notre Dame,Ind。2002]),但未考虑Gallant’他们的理由:英国在爱奥尼亚群岛中统治的理由。

unning’s final chapter addresses the collection of antiquities for the British Museum by consuls and how this activity became embedded in their official responsibilities. She indicates that consuls had a reputation since the 18th century for acquiring antiquities for both public and private collections. The sale in 1820 of the collection acquired by Henry Salt, consul in Alexandria in the last years of the Levant Company, to the French (because the British could not meet the purchase price) is seen by unning as the turning point in the use of the consular service in obtaining antiquities for the national collection. She also traces the links between the British Museum and government that led to the use of the Royal Navy. Establishment of the first Greek antiquities law in 1834 turned attention to the Aegean islands and Asia Minor as the remaining place for the acquisition of classical antiquities not yet protected by law. However, it was not until Newton was appointed vice-consul in 1853 that the role of government in the acquisition of antiquities for the British Museum became clear. unning convincingly documents Newton’的考古意图是接受副领事职位,同时仍与大英博物馆保持联系,以期将来就业。到1860年代,在牛顿统治下’s direction as keeper, the British Museum had an organized agency in the form of the consular service, the Royal Navy, and customs. In 1864, a circular, quoted in full by unning, was sent out to all acting consuls, making the search for antiquities part of their official duties.

Both authors include an appendix: 查利斯 a chapter-by-chapter list of British Museum galleries where the monuments and antiquities can now be found, and unning an alphabetical list of government agents in the Levant and at the embassy in Constantinople. Readers of 查利斯’附录将需要提前检查是否可能关闭或重新布置,并应注意,Payava墓位于20号画廊,而不是印刷的22号画廊。查利斯’书中有大量插图,其中有许多原始旅行考古学家的肖像’ publications complementing her text. There are, however, no maps. Though unning has two maps and 上 e chart and uses original archive photographs of Newton’在发掘中,它们并未与文字完全融合。


黛博拉·哈伦(Deborah Harlan)
Sheffield S1 4ET
United Kingdom

的书评 从竖琴墓到以弗所奇观:1840年奥斯曼帝国的英国考古学家–1880, by Debbie 查利斯; 英国在爱琴海的领事馆和大英博物馆的古物收藏, by Lucia Patrizio unning

评论者 Deborah Harlan

美国考古学杂志 卷114号第一(2010年1月)

在线发布于 www.ajaonline.org/book-review/645

DOI: 10.3764 / ajaonline114.1.Harlan



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