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黎凡特的石船

黎凡特的石船

作者:Rachael Thyrza Sparks。 Pp。 xviii + 488,无花果100,第17表。Maney,里兹,2007年。198美元。 ISBN 978-1-904350-97-2(布)。

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该书卷与其他有关地中海东部地区石器船的专着完全不同。它不仅描述了容器的类型,时间和材料—这是其他治疗方法停止的地方—还提供了有关其考古背景的详尽讨论。这本书是对在黎凡特(Levant)发现的1,917艘石船的研究,该地区围绕着地中海东岸的陆地。从中古铜器时代II到铁器时代I结束,文集跨越了整个公元前第二个千年,并反映了这一时期使用的各种船只,从装饰性珍贵物品到普通的实用工具。完整的船只和零碎的船只都包括在内,最重要的是,它们都来自发掘的考古现场,因此来源已知。期限“vessel”作者广泛应用的对象包括石器,她将它们分别称为花瓶,碗,广口瓶,水罐,罐,瓶,烧瓶,阿拉巴斯特拉,油罐,果冻,杯子,高脚杯,盆,砂浆,盘子,托盘,桌子,摊位,漏斗,灯和汤匙。

After introducing her subject in chapter 1, the author considers the two sources for 船只s found in the Levant: foreign imports (ch. 2) and local manufacture (ch. 3). It is also within these chapters that the chronology and typology of the 船只s are described, with the latter well illustrated by copious ink drawings. Forty percent of the 船只s in the study were imported, mostly from Egypt but also from Crete and Cyprus. For those originating in the Levant, the author distinguishes among 船只s from the Palestinian, Syrian, and Levantine traditions.

第4章介绍了所使用的材料,包括其地质来源。材料的识别是任何对石制品研究中最有问题的方面之一。这在本书中得到了很好的体现。作者不是地质学家,但似乎相当了解岩石学。然而,她的研究将得益于地质学家的协助,以保证正确的岩石学术语。相反,她主要依靠原始的挖掘机’(通常是有缺陷的)标识。因此,许多作者’不同的石材类型实际上是相同的材料。例如她“gneiss,” “diorite,” and “anorthosite”大部分(如果不是全部的话)来自所谓的Chephren的辉长岩/钙铁片麻岩’s Quarry in Egypt’位于西南的努比亚沙漠。作者似乎已经意识到这类命名问题,但无法完全解决。

These problems aside, it is interesting to note that just six stone types make up 82% of the 1,917 船只s: 34% are “calcite”来自埃及(更正确的石灰华); 22%是“gypsum”来自巴勒斯坦(更正确地说是雪花石膏,但不要与“oriental alabaster,”这是石灰华); 16%来自黎凡特的玄武岩;黎凡特(Levant)的石灰石占5%; 3%是“serpentine,”主要来自埃及(更准确地说是蛇纹石);和2%是“chlorite family” from Crete, Cyprus, and the Levant (more correctly chloritic and talcose steatites). For the remaining 18% of 船只s, the author recognizes another two dozen stone types, but because of misidentifications, many are not different materials. The author concludes chapter 4 by relating the stone types to 船只 typology and also discussing the various ways the materials arrived at the archaeological sites where the 船只s were found, including regional trade networks, local exploitation of resources, and recycling of stone objects.

Chapter 5 reviews what is known about excavated stone-vessel workplaces in the Levant, and also describes modern, but still primitive, 船只 workplaces that may serve as models for the organization of ancient 上 es. In this respect, the modern 方解石 (travertine) workshop in the village of Sheikh Abd el-Gurna near Luxor, Egypt, is particularly instructive. Chapter 6 continues the literature review and focuses 上 the tools and technologies behind stone-vessel manufacture. There are good discussions of both the “drill-made” and “chisel-made” 船只s from Egypt, Crete, Cyprus, and the Levant. Chapter 7 describes the distribution of archaeological sites supplying 船只s to the author’s study and also characterizes the 船只 types and materials at each of these sites.

第八章也是最后一章为研究提供了解释性的概述。在这里,作者展示了石器皿在测量外国对黎凡特影响程度方面的实用性。它们不仅指示这些物体的切入点,而且按其数量和类型指示这些地点的国际联系的性质。埃及的石制船只通过积极的商业贸易进入黎凡特,充分说明了这一点,主要入境点在黎凡特北部的Ras Shamra和Tell el-‘在南部沿海平原的阿久尔。相反,主要在Atchana(仅米诺斯),Ras Shamra和Byblos发现的相对稀少的Minoan(Crete)和塞浦路斯船只似乎仅反映了这些岛屿上的人(可能是其他商品的手工艺人或商人)的身影,而不是有组织的石器贸易。这项研究的另一个有趣的结论涉及进口船和家用船之间的关系。作者断言,埃及进口商品是在公元前第二个世纪初到达黎凡特的,而作者断言,这造就了跨越精英阶层的奢侈品的品味。“middle-class”黎凡特社会的各个阶层。正是这种需求推动了国内石器业的发展,然后根据当地的审美和文化偏好以及材料的可获得性发展了这种石器业。

The remainder of the book consists of a 149-page object catalogue for the 船只s in the study, which is followed by a site concordance (appx. A) and a materials concordance (appx. B). A comprehensive list of references and a detailed index complete the book. Even though it is an excellent reference, the book seems overpriced given that there are no color illustrations, just black-and-white ink drawings and 上 ly three figures with grayscale photographs.

The author is to be congratulated for producing a scholarly work of the first magnitude as well as an authoritative reference of great usefulness. It deserves a place in the library of every student of stone 船只s and not just those with an interest in the Levant. This book is relevant to the stone 船只s found in Egypt, Crete, and Cyprus and will also be useful in the study of 船只s from Mesopotamia and the rest of southwest Asia.

詹姆斯·A·哈雷尔
环境科学系
托莱多大学
西班克罗夫特街2801号
Toledo, Ohio 43606
james.harrell@utoledo.edu

的书评 黎凡特的石船,作者:Rachael Thyrza Sparks

由James A. Harrell评论

美国考古学杂志 卷113,No.2(2009年4月)

在线发布于 www.ajaonline.org/book-review/610

DOI: 10.3764 / ajaonline1132.Harrell

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