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‘Art in 的 Round’:古代钱币象形图的新方法

‘Art in 的 Round’:古代钱币象形图的新方法

Nathan T. Elkins和Stefan Krmnicek(Tübinger Archäologische Forschungen 16)。 Pp。 183无花果178,表2。Marie Leidorf,Rahden,2014年。€53.50。 ISBN 978-3-89646-996-0(布)。

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This book is a product of a conference that was intended to bring numismatists together with classicists, historians, art historians, and archaeologists to (according to 的 original call for papers) “explore new directions in 的 study of iconography 上 Graeco‐Roman coinage” (http://coinarchaeology.blogspot.com/2012/04/call-for-papers-art-in-round-new.html). Almost all 的 contributions discuss Roman coinage from 的 Late Republic to 的 Late Imperial period. The contributors are mostly scholars who publish primarily 上 numismatics, but a self-described non-numismatist and art historian (Hölscher) shares 的 pages with historians and an archaeologist. After an introduction, 的 book is broken up into three sections: “Coins, Literature, and 的 Visual Arts,” “特定类型和系列研究中的硬币图示,” and “硬币图像研究中的方法,理论和物质文化。”

The editors note that 的 iconography of coin 类型 is limited by 的 inconsistent “整合考古证据,” a casual “部署比较文本和视觉证据,” a focus 上 particular (and heavily reproduced) specimens, and 的 “intended meaning [of a coin 类型] rather than 的 图像的活体” from which it is derived (6). Some of 的 authors briefly speak to 的 problem of who ordered 的 images (or even who was perceived to have ordered 的 images) to be placed 上 的 coins, but that argument is never fleshed out or even consistently addressed, except by Hölscher (24–5).

Hölscher’s 文章 (“罗马共和国的历史代表”),关于罗马视觉艺术中的历史使用,是他广泛撰写的主题。他认为帝国公共纪念碑和硬币“代表和荣耀皇帝’理想的公共角色和模范美德” through a stable set of images used throughout 的 Imperial period (25). These images resulted from experiments in 的 Republican period, especially 的 Late Republic. The movement of 的se images to 的 imperial repertoire sees 的 shedding of some 类型 of images as no longer used and 的 promotion of others that become beneficial to 的 emperor; even 的 upper classes are seen commissioning 的ir own monuments.

贝克曼(“钱币肖像与大理石半身像的关系”)以传统的方式仔细检查为年轻的福斯蒂娜(Faustina 的 Younger)铸造的金币,方法是检查她的发型以构造不同的肖像类型,并讨论引入这些类型的原因。他通过进行模具研究来更好地理解不断变化的发型的时间顺序,从而为该论证带来了新的面貌。圆形和钱币型肖像类型之间的差异是模切机希望代表的结果“福斯蒂纳的实际差异’s appearance”(例如43),这种变化在幸存的画像中并不总是显而易见。这些变化中只有一部分可以归因于孩子的出生。我对模切刀能够研究多少次皇后变化持怀疑态度’发型以实时描绘这些变化。

斯坦博克’s “硬币类型和拉丁泛希腊语作为帝国传播的手段”特里尔(Trier)法院将两名被告绑架。公元290年和286年至292年之间,里昂铸造的硬币来自其他学者研究了这一联系(如作者所述),但他的贡献专门研究了里昂铸币的硬币,以衡量安东尼尼尼类型的敏感度,以此来指示帝国的关切。 (他的语言可能会使这里的非货币主义者感到困惑,因为他一直指“extant antoniniani” when he means “types”)。这些讲究者可能会论证薄荷对帝国问题的敏感性,但是“图像的活体” mentioned in 的 introduction would surely mean that all 的se 类型, in actual practice, circulated simultaneously, and possibly 上 ly 的 mint officials were privy to such targeted messages.

The second section includes an announcement of 的 forthcoming coin database Digital Iconographic Atlas of Numismatics in Antiquity (DIANA), along with a small case study of Greek coin iconography (Puglisi). I do not know how DIANA will interface with other databases that are currently being developed, but it appears that at some point we may be released from citations of 的 valuable old British Museum collections.

莫利纳里(“公元前三世纪造币时两种带有两面神的罗马类型”) continues this section with a short entry looking at Janus, using sources ranging from 的 fifth(?) century B.C.E. through 1724. Erickson (“宙斯飞往阿波罗,然后再次返回”) approaches 的 use of Zeus and Apollo 上 late Seleucid coins by looking at 的 much-studied coins of Antiochus IV, proposing a new chronology for some coins based 上 的 reverse of Zeus.

马其顿的四个薄荷糖是陶博纳公司的重点’s entry (“关于马其顿罗马殖民地的硬币意象”),根据各自的历史分析各个城市对罗马权威的回应。他区分了“来自周围环境的原住民希腊人的意大利定居者的后代” to find 的 “城市精英的身份” as opposed to 的 “殖民者的身份” (115). More interesting is 的 complex interweaving of new 类型, references to 的 cities’过去,以及传说中的新语言,形成了一种“Romano-Macedonian”文化,是构成多种文化的一种“the” Roman empire.

奎勒(“Portus Augusti”) examines 的 splendid Neronian sestertii depicting 的 harbor at Ostia to reevaluate 的m in conjunction with archaeological evidence. The author is forced to depend 上 a 16th-century print to reconstruct 的 harbor; 的 engraver may have used 的 coin, at least in part, to form 的 print (Cuyler conflates 的 word “die” with “type” and uses “inscription” for “legend”). In doing so, 的 author tries to remind 的 reader that Nero was not just a lyre player but also an emperor with an interest in infrastructure, especially harbors.

威格·沃尔夫(“Constantine’的Ticinum银复本[我笑 36]”) reconsiders 的 appearance of 的 chi-rho 上 a silver coin of 君士坦丁. This coin has long been interesting to religious historians, as it is 的 first time a Christian symbol is found 上 a coin. The author, I believe correctly, argues that 的 Christian message is much overvalued by moderns.

罗恩带着我们回到了共和党后期希腊“殖民地语境中的肖像学。” Building 上 a postcolonial model, Rowan wants to show 的 “diversity of 的 Roman colonial process,” especially as 的 Romans grapple with new “conceptions of power as 的 Roman world moved towards 的 principate”(147)。这是一个合理的案例研究,在罗马省造币中具有更广泛的意义。

Biedermann和Dumke(“Case Studies in Late Republican Coinage in 的 East”) also provide case studies, which begin in 的 late Seleucid and extend to 的 Augustan period. The posthumous coins of Philip I Epiphanes Philadelphos and 的 aurei and denarii of Labienus are meant to be contrasts in 的 “古代钱币设计中可以表达的广泛含义” (167). In both cases, 的 coins in question have been widely discussed; 的 authors hope by placing 的m in wider contexts to find a solution to two intractable problems.

巴巴托(“Flavian Typology”) offers a much-compressed version of her dissertation, a study that tries to determine if different 类型 were sent to different provinces in 的 Roman West as 的 emperors appealed to different audiences, although she does not make use of Hobley’s An Examination of Roman Bronze Coin Distribution in 的 Western Empire AD 81–192 (Oxford 1989). I wonder about her sample size, which ranges from 23 to 476 coins, with no corrective or exploration of whether 的 differences she found in 的 sample were significant.

该卷主要面向研究生和学者,因为它假定能够阅读德语,法语,拉丁语和希腊语的文本,至少是一小部分。有一些令人烦恼的社论单,包括参考文献中的印刷错误,参考文献不完整或书目条目缺失以及数字错误。这本书确实达到了其目标,即要有各种各样的学者来解决新旧问题,并为这些答案提供新的答案或新的证据。在讨论硬币的肖像时,作者运用了广泛的证据和多种方法。我建议在该领域内最好的奖学金一直试图做到这一点,但是获得更多证据有助于使历史学家,考古学家和艺术史学家了解硬币肖像的使用情况。因此,这些文章是对硬币使用者在看硬币类型时可能会感觉到的问题的欢迎补充。

简·德罗斯·埃文斯
艺术史系和希腊和拉丁经典系
Temple University
jevans@temple.edu

的书评 Art in 的 Round:古代钱币象形图的新方法由Nathan T. Elkins和Stefan Krmnicek编辑

简·德罗斯·埃文斯评论

美国考古学杂志 卷120号第一名(2016年1月)

在线发布于 www.ajaonline.org/book-review/2560

DOI:10.3764 / ajaonline1201.Evans

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