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以色列的骑兵:君主制以色列中的马与马车(第九届)–公元前八世纪)

以色列的骑兵:君主制以色列中的马与马车(第九届)–公元前八世纪)

由Deborah O’Daniel 坎特雷尔 (History, Archaeology, and Culture of the Levant 1). Pp. xii + 150, figs. 16, tables 4.艾森布拉恩斯,印第安纳州威诺纳湖,2011年,39.50美元。 ISBN 978-1-57506-204-4(布)。

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马的驯化及其随后在战车和骑兵中的使用对古代近东世界产生了巨大影响。赫梯人,埃及人和亚述人以马力建立了自己的帝国,因此,马成为近东最有价值的商品。以色列尽管位于帝国中心,但传统上一直被学者们标记为马贫瘠地区。 With the present volume, 坎特雷尔 aims to disprove this notion by combining her academic training and a lifetime of experience riding and competing with horses to present a reevaluation of the horse in Iron Age Israel.

坎特雷尔 begins with a subject that is essential to any study relating to the horse and its use by humans: equine physiology and behavior. The author presents the topic clearly and effectively by exploring the role of innate equine prey drive, gender, and physical limitations in relation to the battlefield. With this introduction, 坎特雷尔 clearly sets out a theme that continues through the rest of her book: that horsepower determined the outcome of battles in the Iron Age.

在接下来的两章中,作者结合了人口统计学,建筑学,考古学和环境方面的证据,以表明,在铁器时代,以色列军队具有足够的能力来繁殖,维持和部署大型战车。铁器时代以色列拥有进行大规模牧业所需的资源—水,牧场和谷物。以色列的地形,特别是开放平原和该地区相对紧凑的区域的结合,使其非常适合使用战车。平原为训练提供了足够的空间,而堡垒和路站之间的距离很短“将战车作为最可行的交通工具” (66), and “堡垒之间的短距离使以色列和犹大得以建立并维持一支团结一致的常备军”(67)。在其他地方,她通过比较以色列和亚述的地理状况来加强这一观念,亚述由于繁殖/训练场和军事要塞之间的距离,每年召集马匹的时间要多得多。

坎特雷尔’s two largest pieces of evidence for chariotry in Iron Age Israel are closely interrelated. These are the architectural innovation of six-chambered gates in the late 10th and early ninth centuries and the construction of stables throughout the region. The author persuasively argues that the six-chambered gates found at the entrances of fortresses across Israel were used for the harnessing of chariot teams and the inspection of horses returning from the field. Here we see 坎特雷尔 make excellent use of her equestrian background in describing how these chambers made the harnessing/unharnessing process safer and more efficient for horses and people. The discussion of the six-chambered gates leads into a case study of the stables at Megiddo (ch. 5). It is not surprising that 坎特雷尔 devotes an entire chapter to the topic of Megiddo, as she was part of a team of archaeologists and equine professionals invited to work there during the 1998 and 2000 excavation seasons. The purpose was to reexamine the Megiddo stables in light of arguments suggesting that the structures were never used as stables, as they were unsuitable for horses (esp. J.B. Pritchard, “米吉多马St:重新评估,”在J.A.桑德斯编辑, 20世纪近东考古:纪念纳尔逊·格鲁克的杂文 [Garden City, N.Y. 1970]). 坎特雷尔 methodically goes through each of Pritchard’的观点,并利用她对马的行为的理解予以驳斥。作者出色地展示了Megiddo结构如何充当马does。但是,她在这一章中确实有点过分热情,并且她的写作变得高挑而重复。这也许是尝试将马术的第二种术语转换成通俗易懂的语言的结果。

Chapter 6 deals with the topic of warfare in Iron Age Israel, although the title is somewhat misleading. This chapter is more a chronological 概要 of major battles/invasions in Iron Age Israel than a discussion of actual combat tactics and related military issues. Nonetheless, 坎特雷尔 furthers her basic argument for horses in Iron Age Israel by showing that Israel would have been quickly swallowed up by its powerful neighbors had the Israelite army not included a substantial and well-trained chariot corps.

The final chapter offers a cursory look at the transition from chariot warfare to cavalry. I can understand why 坎特雷尔 felt it necessary to include this brief chapter (six pages), but it does not relate to the primary purpose of the book, and it introduces a number of questions that are left unanswered.

In sum, this book provides a valuable contribution to the corpus of work 上 equines in the ancient world. 坎特雷尔 provides a clear and concise argument for the importance of the horse to Iron Age Israel by successfully combining literary, archaeological, and architectural evidence with her own knowledge of equine husbandry and training.

卡罗琳·威利克斯(Carolyn Willekes)
西南第二街102-2404号
阿尔伯塔省卡尔加里T2S 1T1
Canada
carolynwillekes@gmail.com

的书评 以色列的骑兵:君主制以色列中的马与马车(第九届)–公元前八世纪),作者:Deborah O’Daniel 坎特雷尔

由Carolyn Willekes评论

美国考古学杂志 卷118号3(2014年7月)

在线发布于 www.ajaonline.org/book-review/1829

DOI:10.3764 / ajaonline1183.Willekes

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