塔纳格拉s: Figurines for Life and Eternity. The Musée du Louvre’的希腊小雕像收藏
塔纳格拉s: Figurines for Life and Eternity. The Musée du Louvre’的希腊小雕像收藏
由Violaine Jeammet撰写。 Pp。 300，无花果127，彩色请。 268，图纸19. Fundación Bancaja，瓦伦西亚，2010年。45美元。 ISBN 978-84-8471-171-1（纸）。
The latest Louvre catalogue 上 Greek figurines culled from the environs of 塔纳格拉 is a masterpiece of image and text. In 2010, the exhibition 塔纳格拉s: Figurines for Life and Eternity. Collection of the Musée du Louvre卢浮宫和瓦伦西亚Bancaja文化中心之间的合作伙伴关系在西班牙巴伦西亚举行。源自卢浮宫以前的展览’s 塔纳格拉 figurines that was mounted in 2003–2004年在该博物馆参观了蒙特利尔美术博物馆，2010年展览的目录不仅展示了卢浮宫’s corpus but also includes 塔纳格拉 figurines from other museums as well as small sculptures of various provenance that presaged the development of the 塔纳格拉 style. That style became so influential that it spawned production abroad in Magna Graecia (esp. Tarentum), Sicily, North Africa (Cyrenaica and Alexandria), the Pontic region (Amisos), Myrina and Colophon 上 the west coast of Asia Minor, and Cyprus. Consequently, the images associated with the 212 catalogued objects provide an authoritative visual spread of the precious figurines that were widely diffused and valued during the Hellenistic period.
The catalogue was produced, as was the exhibition, under the expert direction of Jeammet, senior curator in the Department of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities at the Louvre. It is much more than a presentation of selected objects, and Jeammet has assembled a team of 24 contributors who have provided professional commentary not 上 ly 上 individual objects but also 上 content for the numerous sections that make up the volume. The organization of the book truly sets it apart from other works of its kind that present materials from museum collections, and catalogue entries are embedded in seven thematic chapters giving ample treatment of the 塔纳格拉 现象. A total of 36 separate essays span the gamut of information, ranging from the Mycenaean cemeteries at 塔纳格拉 to the current 21st-century archaeometric analysis of the figurines. Constraints 上 the length of this review preclude the acknowledgment of each essay, but all have been masterfully written, and each provides an important scholarly component adding to the success of the text.
首先，提醒读者正确使用“Tanagra figurine”指一群披着的女性—但有时也有儿童和男性—that were originally crafted in Athens but were soon exported to Boeotia and produced primarily in 塔纳格拉. Clandestine looting of 塔纳格拉 tombs during the initial discovery of the figurines in 1871 compromised contexts, and molds employed in the manufacture of figurines could be used for several generations of production, so precise dating has been sacrificed for the range of 330–200 B.C.E., which is traditionally accepted for the 塔纳格拉 style. The first section of the volume, “历史背景” contains essays that focus 上 two disparate topics: (1) the 19th- and 20th-century appetite for 塔纳格拉 figurines fueled by economic and cultural circumstances, as well as by a select group of savvy dealers; and (2) the ancient history of 塔纳格拉 and its surrounding area spanning the Mycenaean period, with the prominence of Thebes underscored, and continuing from the Archaic into the Roman period with the final eclipse of 塔纳格拉. The section concludes with an essay providing a review of the survey of ancient 塔纳格拉, summarizing the results of the Urban Survey of 塔纳格拉 begun in 2000 that relied 上 the previous critical survey and mapping work of Duane Roller. The second thematic section, “Boeotia的兵马俑生产：一千年–Old Tradition”包括六篇论文，涉及大麦生产的不同方面，包括迈锡尼粘土larnakes； Boeotian几何陶器和钟形女性雕像；坐着“flat”小雕像哑光多色的开始； Boeotian的陶器和雕像风格的场景，都来自古时代；在古典时期，重点放在遗体埋葬处及其周围的祭品的存放，以及雅典提供的舞者和被遮盖的女性小雕像进口的证据。
第三节“来自雅典和Boeotia的Tanagras，”包括几篇有关塔纳格拉风格及其发展动力的论文。关于起源的讨论“Tanagra” style in Athens shortly before 330 B.C.E. with probable Corinthian influence and the near-immediate diffusion of the style, particularly northward, due to Athenian trade networks underscores the primary role Attic coroplasts played, and 上 e essay reinforces the Attic forerunners of some popular figurine types in the 塔纳格拉 repertoire. Attic influence is emphasized in another essay that discusses the Louvre’s Campana Collection of figurines made in Attic workshops for Acropolis sanctuaries and in a style that 上 ly slightly predates 塔纳格拉 production. The final three essays of this section are devoted to 塔纳格拉 figurines per se, with 上 e focusing 上 how crafting techniques involving the use of the mold allowed for mass production, while utilization of multiple molds for different body parts and creative polychromy resulted in a stock of figurines variable in form and embellishment that came to be appreciated throughout the Greek world. Another essay reinforces how critical the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C.E. and the subsequent destruction of Thebes was to the establishment of 塔纳格拉 as an important coroplastic center and its receptivity to Attic, Corinthian, and Theban imports. The final essay acknowledges that although 塔纳格拉n craft centers have not been identified, workshops have been distinguished around two key types: the “Sophoclean Lady” (cat. nos. 83–6) and the “Lady in Blue” (cat. nos. 88–91）都受到大型雕塑原型的启发，前者是由狄奥尼索斯剧院建立的雅典雕塑家Leochares的青铜雕像创作的，后者被认为是源自普拉克西特莱斯现已失传的著名原型，但在赫库兰尼姆发现的副本中称为“大赫库兰尼姆的女人。”
本卷的第四主题部分，“The Meaning of the ‘Tanagras,’” encompasses several topics. Two essays cover clothing, and a review of the garments worn provides an indispensable survey of the clothes depicted 上 the figurines with nuances of fabric textures referenced in the better molds. Clothes were also dedicatory offerings to deities, and specific colors carried symbolic meaning. An additional four essays consider the 塔纳格拉 figurines from the aspect of ritual. The topic of cults in Boeotia is introduced and emphasizes the panoply of Olympian gods, local heroes, and deities specific to the area who received worship. Prominent were Hermes, Aphrodite, Eros, and Dionysos, and it is suggested that many of the 塔纳格拉 figurines can be associated with these particular deities, especially in their liminal aspects and transformative powers. An important cautionary proviso is raised that the prominence given to the funerary aspect of 塔纳格拉 figurines because of the illicit excavation of tombs in the 19th century that led to their discovery may unduly bias the contextual basis for how the figurines have subsequently been viewed. Survey of the upper part of the town revealed numerous sanctuaries, although no information exists for cult paraphernalia. Study of 塔纳格拉 figurines found at other sites, indeed, indicates that they could serve as temple votives as well as funerary gifts. Whether votive donations or tomb offerings, a strong case is made that the figurines fulfilled a ritual function and could represent the living or the deceased in the act of a religious ceremony.
该卷中最长的主题部分是“跟随亚历山大大帝的台阶，” which includes eight essays that address the 塔纳格拉 “phenomenon” throughout the Greek world, detailing the Attic impetus for the style with infusion from Corinthian coroplastic and metalworking influences and the spread northward to Boeotia. Expansive Attic trade networks and widening cultural horizons at the end of the fourth century B.C.E. made the distribution of 塔纳格拉 figurines inevitable, with imports and the local use of derivative molds establishing a relatively consistent widespread style and high level of quality seen in Alexandria and Myrina in Asia Minor. During the third century, the diffusion of 塔纳格拉 figurines continued, sometimes with local variations or proclivities favored, with production documented over a wide area from Cyprus, Cyrenaica, and throughout Italy and Sicily—麦格纳·格拉西亚（Magna Graecia），尤其是塔伦通（Tarentum）—风格通过中介生产中心传到了Samnium，Latium和Etruria。
The next section of the book is a single but very important essay that presents a 概要 of the scientific analysis that was conducted 上 a subset of the 塔纳格拉 figurines being prepared for inclusion in the 2003 exhibition; intent 上 determining original objects from modern copies when a massive forgers’ market was rampant during the 19th century, when the Louvre was acquiring figurines for its collection, luminescence dating revealed that few of the Louvre 塔纳格拉s were not original. Furthermore, physiochemical study of the clay along with stylistic analysis of the selected figurines suggested three different production centers for the Louvre material: 塔纳格拉, Thebes, and Athens.
该卷的最后主题部分（“Colourful Figurines”) and the three essays in this section focus 上 the polychrome decoration that the 塔纳格拉 figurines so brilliantly display. The pictorial effects achieved by a limited palette used by painters of the figurines as well as the sophisticated craftsmanship necessary for the application of gilding is presented in 上 e essay, while the final two essays consider the novelty of color derived from various organic pigments and materials applied over a kaolin preparation that allowed for a delicacy of shading; and the more exuberant colors of the late fourth century are the result of exotic pigments discovered during Alexander’s campaigns. The text is followed by several invaluable appendices that include a detailed chronological chart, a section containing several maps (the site map showing the diffusion of 塔纳格拉 figurines throughout the Mediterranean and the Hellenistic East is particularly critical); tables summarizing the archaeometric analyses of the figurines conducted by the Centre de Recherché音乐博物馆é法国列出网站的冗长表格—在希腊，东希腊，爱奥尼亚，蓬图斯Euxinus，意大利和西西里岛，北非和近东—where 塔纳格拉 figurines have been recorded and includes their contexts and key scholarly citations; a glossary of terms; and a comprehensive bibliography.
塔纳格拉s: Figurines for Life and Eternity is a splendid volume, rich 上 many levels. The text is detailed but far from ponderous, and the inclusion of notes at the end of each essay will be appreciated by the scholarly reader. All catalogued objects are illustrated by stunning color photographs with additional halftones to illustrate the back of figurines. The opulence of the photography extends to the cover, which showcases the image of a small 塔纳格拉 statuette whose surface has been embossed after printing to simulate the textured surface of a terracotta figurine. With a volume so impressive, 上 e hesitates to point out that a scrupulous reader might notice vagaries of spelling in different essays, the mismatch of catalogue numbers and numbered illustrations 上 some pages, and that the typeface and font size for the notes make for difficult reading. Nonetheless, the book is magnificent and appreciably adds to a very important facet of the coroplastic arts.
School of Art
的书评 塔纳格拉s: Figurines for Life and Eternity. The Musée du Louvre’的希腊小雕像收藏，作者：Violaine Jeammet
DOI：10.3764 / ajaonline1161.Serwint